研究 Yánjiū

This marvelous stone sculpture is from a restaurant in Sanlitun District of Beijing named “One Thousand and One Nights.” Photo by M. Hui 2022.
The Silk Roads always were, and still are, the Heart of the World

事实 1:文明首先出现在丝绸之路上。

FACT 1: Civilization first arose on the Silk Roads.

事实 2:世界上大部分自然资源都位于丝绸之路沿线。

FACT 2: Most of the world’s natural resources are along the Silk Roads (e.g. oil, diamonds and gold).

事实 3:中国的政治确定性和全球供应链为丝绸之路国家的经济带来稳定。

FACT 3: China’s political certainty and worldwide supply chains offer economic stability to Silk Road nations’.

大约 500 年前,由于欧洲海上贸易提供了更便宜的国际旅行,以及随之而来的沿海城市的崛起,陆上丝绸之路的经济开始萎缩。 自 2013 年以来,中国为重振陆上和海上丝绸之路做出了巨大努力,为所有相关地区和人民带来了更多的贸易和繁荣。

The economies of the land Silk Roads began to wither about 500 years ago as the result of European sea trade offering cheaper international travel, and the consequent rise of coastal (called “littoral”) cities. Since 2013 China has made tremendous efforts to revive both land and maritime Silk Roads bringing increased trade and prosperity back to all regions and people involved.





问题:中亚大部分地区传统上主要练习的武术是什么? Question: What is the predominant martial art traditionally practiced through most of Central Asia?

远古时代最可怕的武器是战车。 它们绝对是毁灭性的,就像今天的热核武器一样(除了它们通常不会杀死平民)。The most fearsome weapons of the most ancient times were the war chariots. They were absolutely devastating, like the thermonuclear weapons of today (except they didn’t kill civilians as a general rule).

安卡拉安纳托利亚文明博物馆 G. Brundage 摄
Museum of Anatolian Civilization, Ankara Photo by G. Brundage


Sword fighting mainly on horseback

上图和左下图来自阿塞拜疆国家历史博物馆,下图来自卡塔尔伊斯兰艺术博物馆 – G. Brundage 摄。 右下角的照片来自喜马拉雅山勇士大都会博物馆。

Top and lower left photo from Azerbaijan National Museum of history, lower center photo from Qatar Museum of Islamic Art – photos by G. Brundage. Lower right photo is from the Met Museum, Warriors of the Himalayas.

中亚传统武术是什么?What is the traditional martial art of Central Asia most commonly still practiced today?

Kurash,也拼写为 Koresh 和 Goresh Belt Wrestling(因为它跨越许多国家),它也被称为鞑靼摔跤。 同样,它与日本的相扑、柔道和中国的摔跤有太大区别! Kurash, also spelled Koresh and Goresh Belt Wrestling (as it spans many countries) and it’s also called Tartar Wrestling. Likewise, it is not so different from Japanese Sumo, Judo and Chinese Shuai Jiao.

左上照片来自阿什哈巴德(土库曼斯坦),右上来自伊朗亚锦赛,中右来自鞑靼摔跤场地,左下两张来自青年国家队训练的照片,由 G. Brundage 在阿什哈巴德拍摄。 右下图来自印尼腰带摔跤联合会网站。

Upper left photo from Ashgabat (Turkmenistan), upper right is from Asian Championships in Iran, Center right from Tartar Wrestling site, the lower left two photos from Junior National Team training, by G. Brundage taken in Ashgabat, lower right is from the Indonesian Belt Wrestling Federation internet site.


Incredible Silk Road Travelers

Zhang Qian (張騫; died 114 bce)

Zhang Qian (Chinese: 張騫; died c. 114 BC) was a Chinese official and diplomat who served as an imperial envoy to the world outside of China in the late 2nd century BC during the Han dynasty. He was one of the first official diplomats to bring back valuable information about Central Asia, including the Greco-Bactrian remains of the Macedonian Empire as well as the Parthian Empire, to the Han dynasty imperial court, then ruled by Emperor Wu of Han.

Xuanzang (玄奘 602–664)


Xuanzang (玄奘; 602–664), was a 7th-century Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveler, and translator.

他以对中国佛教的划时代贡献、公元 629 年至 645 年前往印度的游记、将超过 657 部印度文本带到中国的努力以及对其中一些文本的翻译而闻名。

He is known for the epoch-making contributions to Chinese Buddhism, the travelogue of his journey to India in 629–645 CE, his efforts to bring over 657 Indian texts to China, and his translations of some of these texts.

Marco Polo, (c. 1254 – 1324)

Marco Polo, was a Venetian merchant, explorer and writer who traveled through Asia along the Silk Road between 1271 and 1295. His travels are recorded in The Travels of Marco Polo (also known as Book of the Marvels of the World and Il Milione, c. 1300), a book that described to Europeans the mysterious culture and inner workings of the Eastern world, including the wealth and great size of the Mongol Empire and China in the Yuan Dynasty, giving their first comprehensive look into China, Persia, India, Japan and other Asian cities and countries.

Polo wearing a Tartar outfit, print from the 18th century

Ibn Battuta (1304 – 1369)

Ibn Battuta was a Moroccan Berber Maghrebi scholar and explorer who traveled extensively in the lands of Afro-Eurasia, largely in the Muslim world, traveling more than any other explorer in pre-modern history, totaling around 117,000 km (73,000 mi), surpassing Zheng He with about 50,000 km (31,000 mi) and Marco Polo with 24,000 km (15,000 mi). Over a period of thirty years, Ibn Battuta visited most of southern Eurasia, including Central Asia, Southeast Asia, South Asia, China, and the Iberian Peninsula. Near the end of his life, he dictated an account of his journeys, titled A Gift to Those Who Contemplate the Wonders of Cities and the Marvels of Traveling, but commonly known as The Rihla.

Also see:

Zhang He – 鄭和 1371 – 1434)

Zhang He was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, and fleet admiral, during China’s early Ming dynasty. He was originally born as Ma He in a Muslim family and later adopted the surname Zheng conferred by the Yongle Emperor. Commissioned by the Yongle Emperor and later the Xuande Emperor, Zheng commanded seven expeditionary treasure voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, West Asia, and East Africa from 1405 to 1433. According to legend, his larger ships carried hundreds of sailors on four decks and were almost twice as long as any wooden ship ever recorded.

Stamp from Indonesia commemorating Zheng He’s voyages to secure the maritime routes, usher urbanization and assist in creating a common prosperity throughout continents and cultures.

For a more comprehensive Silk Road Bibliography I could find is:

For a short Bibliography of Silk Road histories, see:

For a reference list of Silk Road languages, see:

For a reference list of Silk Road literature, see:

Bibliography of South East Asia’s Maritime Silk Road Research and research resource directory see:

For Humanitarian Aid Organizations, Principles and Law, and Human Rights Law, see:–law.html

International Law & Silk Road country specific laws, investment, labor laws see: