Research 3


Historically Persia was one of the great superpowers placing a limit on the expansion of Western powers. Emperor Constantine for example spent decades fighting there are part of the Roman army before going on to create the Catholic church in 325 ACE. Persia was the most formidable rival to the Roman empire for centuries, until, under the Sassanians in the 7th Century it was overwhelmed by the Islamic conquests. This work is the most comprehensive study of ancient Persian armies to date.

Persian Archery and Swordsmanship: Historical Martial Artsof Iran begins with an analysis of the Persian “code of chivalry and warrior codex”, which extends back to the ancient world, Dr. Khorasani has made an extensive cross-analysis of Iranian epic literature, artwork, arms and armour, folk traditions and living martial arts and then compared them with the technical instructions provided by a series of surviving manuscripts on archery, wrestling, spear work, swordsmanship and mounted combat – many of which he as translated into English and included in this book.


The Abbasid Caliphate first centered its government in Kufa, modern-day Iraq, but in 762 the caliph Al-Mansur founded the city of Baghdad, near the ancient Babylonian capital city of Babylon. Baghdad became the center of science, culture and invention in what became known as the Golden Age of Islam. Baghdad is the capital of Iraq and the second-largest city in the Arab world after Cairo.


Hagakure – meaning “Hidden by the Leaves” is a practical and spiritual guide for a warrior, drawn from the collection of commentaries by the clerk Yamamoto Tsunetomo, former retainer to Nabeshima Mitsushige (July 10, 1632 – July 2, 1700). It is considered one of the great classics of martial art literature that goes deeply into philosophy, psychology and strategy. Free PDF copies can be downloaded from:

Hagakure image by Kodansha Europeweb. Fair use,

The Book of Five Rings (五輪書, Go Rin no Sho) is a text on kenjutsu and the martial arts in general, written by the Japanese swordsman Miyamoto Musashi around 1645. This is a masterpiece classic and must reading for all students of the martial arts. It can be read online at: